Arrays are a data structure we can use to collect together multiple other pieces of data. Essentially, it's like a box that holds things inside in a specified order.

Creating an array

Arrays are created simply by surrounding the pieces of data you want in the array with square brackets ([ and ]).

var myArray = [1, 2, 3];
var mixedArray = [
    "Hello world",
    ["cat", "in", "the", "hat"],
    { title: "Catcher in the Rye", author: "J. D. Salinger" },
    function add(a,b) {return a + b}

As you can see in mixedArray, JavaScript arrays can contain any other data type in them, even if they're mixed together. In some languages you have to specify what type of data an array will contain, forcing you to create arrays with only one data type. (All strings, all booleans, etc. but no mixtures).

That being said, if you find yourself writing an array that contains multiple different data types in it, you're most likely going to be better off using an object instead of an array.

Accessing elements from an array

Each item in an array is automatically assigned a position (called an "index") in the array. If it's the very first item in the array, it has an index of 0. (All arrays start with an index of 0. It's confusing at first, but you'll get used to it quickly).

To access elements in an array, you need to know which index the item you're looking for is at. To access the individual element in the array, you use square bracket notation: myArray[<index of the item you want>]. For example:

var turtles = ["Leo", "Don", "Raph", "Mike"];

// to access "Leo":
turtles[0];  // "Leo" is at index 0

// to access "Mike":
turtles[3];  // "Mike" is at index 3

Array Properties

The only property you need to know for now is the .length property, which returns the number of items in the array.

var myArray = ["I", "Like", "Turtles"];
console.log(myArray.length) . // 3

Critical Thinking: How might you access the last element from an array using the array's .length property?

Array Methods

Arrays have a lot of methods we can use to modify an array in one way or another. Below is a list with short explanations and examples of each method.

This list does not cover the array methods that use callback functions, such as .filter() or .sort(). For that list, check out the Array Methods Continued post.


Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length of the array.

Every line builds on the previous lines of code.

var myArray = [];

console.log(myArray);  // ["apple"];

console.log(myArray);  // ["apple", "banana"];

// Can push multiple items at once
myArray.push(1, [], {});
console.log(myArray);  // ["apple", "banana", 1, [], {}];


Removes the last element from an array and returns that element. This method changes the length of the array.

var myArray = ["Mario", "Luigi", "Peach", "Toad"];
var poppedItem = myArray.pop();
console.log(poppedItem);  // "Toad"
console.log(myArray);  // ["Mario", "Luigi", "Peach"]


Removes the first element from an array and returns that element. This method changes the length of the array.

var myArray = ["Mario", "Luigi", "Peach", "Toad"];
var poppedItem = myArray.shift();

console.log(poppedItem);  // "Mario"
console.log(myArray);  // ["Luigi", "Peach", "Toad"]


Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns the new length of the array.

var veggies = ["Carrots"];
console.log(veggies);  // ["Tomatoes", "Carrots"]
veggies.unshift("Kale", "Lettuce");
console.log(veggies);  // ["Kale", "Lettuce", "Tomatoes", "Carrots"]

.splice(startingIndex, numberToRemove[, itemsToInsert])

Changes the contents of an array by removing existing elements and/or adding new elements.

var myFish = ['angel', 'clown', 'mandarin', 'sturgeon'];

// remove 1 element from index 2
var removed = myFish.splice(2, 1);
// myFish is ['angel', 'clown', 'sturgeon']
// removed is ['mandarin']

// remove 0 elements from index 2, and insert 'drum'
var removed2 = myFish.splice(2, 0, 'drum');
// myFish is ['angel', 'clown', 'drum', 'sturgeon']
// removed is [], no elements removed

// remove 1 element from index 2, and insert 'trumpet'
var removed3 = myFish.splice(2, 1, 'trumpet');
// myFish is ['angel', 'clown', 'trumpet', 'sturgeon']
// removed is ['drum']

// removes 2 elements starting from index 0, and inserts 'parrot', 'anemone' and 'blue'
var removed4 = myFish.splice(0, 2, 'parrot', 'anemone', 'blue');
// myFish is ['parrot', 'anemone', 'blue', 'trumpet', 'sturgeon']
// removed is ['angel', 'clown']

.slice(startIndex [, endIndex])

Returns a shallow (non-destructive) copy of a portion of an array into a new array object selected from begin to end (end not included). The original array will not be modified.

The second parameter is optional. If omitted, endIndex defaults through the end of the array. If provided, it specifies the non-inclusive ending point of the slice. (The item at the index of endIndex will NOT be included in the new array).

var fruits = ["Banana", "Orange", "Lemon", "Apple", "Mango"];
var citrus = fruits.slice(1, 3);  // ["Orange", "Lemon"]
var citrusToEnd = fruits.slice(1);  // ["Orange", "Lemon", "Apple", "Mango"]


Returns the first index at which a given element can be found in the array, or -1 if it is not present.

var myArray = ["grape", "orange", "banana", "orange", "apple"];
var index = myArray.indexOf("orange"));
console.log(index);  // 1

var notFoundItemIndex = myArray.indexOf("kiwi");
console.log(notFoundItemIndex);  // -1

.lastIndexOf(item[, fromIndex])

Returns the last index at which a given element can be found in the array, or -1 if it is not present. The array is searched backwards, starting at fromIndex (or the end of the array if fromIndex is omitted).

var myArray = ["grape", "orange", "banana", "orange", "apple"];
var index = myArray.lastIndexOf("orange"));
console.log(index);  // 3


Joins all elements of an array into a string and returns that string, separated by separator (or commas if separator is omitted).

var captainPlanet = ["Earth", "Fire", "Wind", "Water", "Heart"];
captainPlanet.join(" ");  // "Earth Fire Wind Water Heart"
captainPlanet.join("-");  // "Earth-Fire-Wind-Water-Heart"
captainPlanet.join();  // "Earth,Fire,Wind,Water,Heart"


Used to merge two or more arrays. This method does not change the existing arrays, but instead returns a new array.

var arr1 = ["Cecilie", "Lone"];
var arr2 = ["Emil", "Tobias","Linus"];
var arr3 = ["Robin", "Morgan"];
var myChildren = arr1.concat(arr2, arr3); // Concatenates arr1 with arr2 and arr3
console.log(myChildren);  // ["Cecilie", "Lone", "Emil", "Tobias", "Linus", "Robin", "Morgan"]


Reverses the elements in an array in place, modifying the original array.

var fruits = ["apple", "banana", "kiwi", "orange"];

console.log(myArray);  // ["orange", "kiwi", "banana", "apple"];


These array methods are commonly used. Practice with them. Pay attention to how and if they mutate the array, and pay attention to what each method returns.